At a Glance Government People and Culture Tourism in Arunachal Pradesh Biodiversity Directory

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Medicinal Plants

Toko(Palm Tree)

Cymtridum Orchid


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The forests of Arunachal Pradesh possess a phenomenal range of biological diversity, both in flor and fauna. The forests are also home to sizeable tribal population which continues to live in close association with nature and utilises a wide variety of forest resources for sustenance and livelihood. Nature has been exceedingly kind and has endowed this beautiful State of Arunachal Pradesh with diverse forests and magnificent wildlife. The richness of life forms i.e. the flora & fauna that occur in these forests presents a panorama of biological diversity with over 5000 plants, about 85 terrestrial mammals, over 500 birds and a large number of butterflies, insects and reptiles.The vegetation of Arunachal Pradesh falls under four broad climatic categories and can be classified in five broad forest types with a sixth type of secondary forests. These are tropical forests, sub-tropical forests, pine forests, temperate forests and alpine forests.
Forest Cover Map of Arunachal Pradesh
These forests occur up to an elevation of 900 metres above MSL . They are persent in all the districts along the foothills . These forests can further be classified into two main types viz. tropical evergreen forests and tropical semi evergreen forests.
Tropical Wet Evergreen Forest
This type of forests occur in districts between altitudes 800m to 1900m. These are essentially evergreen and dense in nature. The trees attain large dimensions (25-40m high). The forests are rich in species diversity and dominated by Fagaceae members. 
Sub Tropical Forest
Castaniopsis lidica, C. armata, Quercus lamellose, Q. griffithili, Q. spicata, Q. Semiserrata, Q. fenestrala, Michelia oblonga, Manglietia insignis, Ostodes paniculata, Ulmus lancifolium, Engelhardia spicata, Ficus spp. Acer oblongum, Schima wallichji, S.khasiana, etc. are the dominant tree species. Luxurious growth of climbers, orchids & ferns, occurs in these forests.
These forests extend both in the subtropical and temperate belt in between 1000 m to 1800 m elevation. These are generally met with in rain shadow area and are represented by three different sepecsies viz. Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana and P.merkusii.,
Sub Tropical Pine Forest
is found in Rupa and Dirang valley of Kameng district and forms either pure stands or occasionally mixed with P. wallichiana, Quercus spp, Prunus sp. Etc. P. wallichiana is widely distributed in Rupa, Dirang valley (Kameng district), Hapoli ( Lower Subansiri district), Mechuka (West Siang district), Anini (Dibang valley district). and Melinja ( Lohit district). In Kameng, Siang and Lower Subansiri district it is found in nearly pure stands or less frequently mixed with P. roxburghii, Quercus spp. Lyonia sp. Etc.
In Dibang valley they are found in association with Betula alnoides, Alnus nepalensis, Lyona ovalifolia, etc. In Lohit district it is less extensive and is associated with Tsuga dimosa, Pinus merkusii, occurs in Lohit district along the Lohit valley extending from Kharang (Hawal) to Dichu.
Occur in all district as a continuous belt and can be divided into two subtypes viz. Temperate broad leaved forests and Temperate conifer forests.
Temperate Forest
This type of vegetation occurs on the peaks of higher hills above an altitude of 4000 m upto 5500m above timber line. For major part of the year, the area is covered by snow and plant activity is restricted to a few months when snow melts.
Alpine Vegetaion
As a rule there are no tall trees but dwarf branches and shrubs and mainly herbs with deep roots and cushioned leaves and branches. The profusion of bright coloured flowers which is purely seasonal for a brief period makes the area highly attractive. Plans like Rhododendron nivale., R. anthopogon, R. thomsonii, Sedum sp.., Festuca sp.., Rhodiola sp,.. Saxifraga sp. Saussaurea sp,. Arenaria sp,. Rheum sp. etc. form the major constituent of this peculiar vegetation.
The common trees seen are Machranga denticulate, Mallotus tetracoccus, Callicarpa arbnorea, C. vestita, Bauhinia sp,. Glochidion spp, and shrubs like Clerodendrum spp. Randia sp. Rubus sp,. Viburnum sp. Croton caudatus, Capparis spp., Eurya acuminata, Dalbergia sp. etc. and also obnoxious weeds like Mikania micrantha, Eupatorium odoratum, etc.
These are seen as bambaoo breakes up to 2000m altitude throughout the State, Bamboos grow mostly in pure stands with very less of associated species. Normally bamboos appear in areas abandoned after shifting cultivation, where they colonise fast. Bamboos of Arunachal Pradesh are Bambusa tulda, B. pallida, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, D. hookerii, Pseudostachyum polymorphum, Chimonobambusa sp. Cephalostachyum sp. and Arundinaria spp. , Phyllostachys sp. (both single stem bamboos) occsur in higher elevation 1000-2000m.
Grasslands form a main feature of vegetation in reverine plains and at higher elevations. This seral type is maintained through recurring annual fires at higher elevation and excessive grazing at lower elevations. In lower elevation, Saccharum spontaneum, S. arundinaceum, Neyraudia reynaudiana, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Imperate Cylindrica, etc. associated with a few sedges like Cyperus sp., Scirpus sp.., Fimbristylies sp., etc. are seen commonly in grasslands. A few trees scattered at lower elevations, like Macranga denticulate, Bombax ceiba, Duabanga grandiflora make the grassland are prominent in pine belt. Such grasslands support gregarious tall grasses viz., Thysanolaena maxima, Imperata cylindrical. Sporobolus sp.., Paspalum sp., etc. 
Peoples participation in forestry management :

To encourage peoples participation in the management of forestry related activities several schemes have been introduced in the state.    Apna Van is one of such popular schemes.   Some other plantations schemes in the state are Aided Natural Regeneration, Minimum Need Programme, Minor Forest Produce, Area Oriented Fuelwood and Fodder Project, Integrated Wasteland Development Project, etc. To meet the demand of high class timber Deptt. of Environment and Forests has taken up several plantation of  high value timber species.  The picture shows a scientifically managed teak plantation.

Photographs :
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